ATMega328P Microcontroller IC Chip


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ATMEGA328P is high performance, low power controller from Microchip. ATMEGA328P is an 8-bit microcontroller based on AVR RISC architecture. It is the most popular of all AVR controllers as it is used in ARDUINO boards.
Although we have many controllers ATMEGA328P is most popular of all because of its features and cost. ARDUINO boards are also developed on this controller because of its features.

  • With program memory of 32 Kbytes ATMEGA328P applications are many.
  • With various POWER SAVING modes it can work on MOBILE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS.
  • With Watchdog timer to reset under error it can be used on systems with minimal human interference.
  • With advanced RISC architecture, the controller executes programs quickly.
  • Also with in chip temperature sensor the controller can be used at extreme temperatures.
  • These all features add together promoting ATMEGA328P further.

Since ATmega328P is used in Arduino Uno and Arduino nano boards, you can directly replace the arduino board with ATmega328 chip. For that first you need to install the Arduino bootloader into the chip (Or you can also buy a chip with bootloader – ATMega328P-PU). This IC with bootloader can be placed on Arduino Uno board and burn the program into it. Once Arduino program is burnt into the IC, it can be removed and used in place of Arduino board, along with a Crystal oscillator and other components as required for the project.

ATMEGA328 is used similar to any other controller. All there to do is programming. Controller simply executes the program provided by us at any instant. Without programming controller simply stays put without doing anything. As said, first we need to program the controller and that is done by writing the appropriate program file in the ATMEGA328P FLASH memory. After dumping this program code, the controller executes this code and provides appropriate response.

Entire process of using an ATMEGA328P goes like this:

  • List the functions to be executed by controller.
  • Write the functions in programming language in IDE programs.
  • ATMEGA328P programming can also be done in ARDUINO IDE.
  • After writing the program, compile it to eliminate errors.
  • Make the IDE generate HEX file for the written program after compiling.
  • This HEX file contains the machine code which should be written in controller flash memory.
  • Choose the programming device (usually SPI programmer made for AVR controllers) which establishes communication between PC and ATMEGA328P. You can also program ATMEGA328P using ARDUINO UNO board.
  • Run the programmer software and choose the appropriate hex file.
  • Burn the HEX file of written program in ATMEGA328P flash memory using this program.
  • Disconnect the programmer, connect the appropriate peripherals for the controller and get the system started.


There are hundreds of applications for ATMEGA328P:

  • Industrial control systems.
  • SMPS and Power Regulation systems.
  • Digital data processing.
  • Analog signal measuring and manipulations.
  • Embedded systems like coffee machine, vending machine.
  • Motor control systems.
  • Display units.
  • Peripheral Interface system.

Technical Specifications

Weight 5 g
CPU 8-bit AVR
Number of Pins 28
Operating Voltage +1.8 V TO +5.5V
Number of programmable I/O lines 23
Communication Interface Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface(17,18,19 PINS) [Can be used for programming this controller]
Programmable Serial USART(2,3 PINS) [Can be used for programming this controller]
Two-wire Serial Interface(27,28 PINS)[Can be used to connect peripheral devices like Servos, sensors and memory devices]
ADC Module 6 channels, 10-bit resolution ADC
Timer Module Two 8-bit counters with Separate Prescaler and compare mode, One 16-bit counter with Separate Prescaler,compare mode and capture mode.
Analog Comparators 1(12,13 PINS)
PWM channels 6
External Oscillator 0-4MHz @ 1.8V to 5.5V
0-10MHz @ 2.7V to 5.5V
0-20MHz @ 4.5V to 5.5V
Internal Oscillator 8MHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
Program Memory or Flash memory 32Kbytes[10000 write/erase cycles]
CPU Speed 1MIPS for 1MHz
RAM 2Kbytes Internal SRAM
EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)
Power Save Modes Six Modes[Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby]
Operating Temperature -40°C to +105°C(+105 being absolute maximum, -40 being absolute minimum)
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